Una investigación revela que el término menos racista para referirse a un extranjero es “extranjero”

Puede sonar a broma, pero es totalmente cierto. Cada día en la prensa, aunque la tendencia está cambiando, se escuchan términos considerados como “racistas” cuando un medio de comunicación trata una noticia sobre inmigración, o al menos eso dice casi un 70% de la audiencia. Un estudio realizado por una periodista muestra que el concepto más adecuado para referirse a las personas que entran en España es “extranjero”. ¿Algo inesperado?

Ahora los llaman “migrantes”, pero no es más que una palabra tabú que puede incitar al equívoco, como otras tantas que se han empleado con anterioridad respecto a los movimientos migratorios. Migrante es el concepto genérico para las personas que se desplazan de un país a otro, pero con esa palabra no se matiza si nos referimos a los que han entrado en España o a los que han salido de ella. Es decir, con ese término el receptor no puede determinar el contexto del mensaje con claridad:

Son inmigrantes, porque vienen de un país al nuestro. Inmigrante es el ruso que viene a trabajar a España, el inglés que toma el Sol en la costa malagueña durante toda su jubilación y el australiano que vive en una comuna. Los tres son, también, extranjeros, aunque Europa diga que uno de ellos no es ciudadano y los demás sí. No es momento de entrar en más explicación, pero sí debemos tener claro que ciudadano no es cualquiera.

El lenguaje se encuentra tan politizado y tan mercantilizado que nuestro imaginario, cuando escuchamos la palabra “extranjero”, nos hace pensar en un tipo rubillo, con la piel rosa tirando a rojo fuego, cerveza en mano y sentado en un chiringuito. Si alguien pronuncia la palabra “inmigrante”, nos imaginamos a una persona negra con una camisa sin mangas y con una situación económica difícil. Estereotipo elevado a estereotipo. Es el momento de empezar a cambiar esa percepción, dañina y mal contextualizada desde un enfoque puramente eurocéntrico -mitad europeo, mitad egocéntrico-, en base a la realidad estructural de nuestro sistema.

El estudio La cobertura de la inmigración ilegal como crítica a la realidad mediática: la especialización periodística como respuesta, como su propio nombre indica, es una llamada a la fusión entre Derecho y Periodismo. Es decir, lo que se plantea es usar términos especializados con el fin de afinar al máximo en su significado y regenerar el imaginario colectivo, que falta hace. Y no solo eso, sino que tras plantear el uso de un concepto jurídico, resulta que la audiencia, según su criterio, lo verifica como el más válido, como el “menos racista”:

En la encuesta en la que se basa la citada investigación, realizada de forma privada, participaron un total de 770 personas, una muestra que presenta las siguientes características: nivel educativo alto y considerada informada, pues un 73,78% afirma tener un consumo alto de noticias. En general se deduce que la muestra tiene capacidad crítica y el primer mazazo a la prensa es que más del 66% cree que ésta fomenta el racismo con su lenguaje. Y lo más revelador: la palabra más apropiada y menos racista para referirse a una persona no española es “extranjero”. Y en esa línea, cuando sea necesario, añadir “en situación administrativa irregular”.

En parte, si no se respeta esta solución y no se emplea un lenguaje tendente a la especialización periodística, se produce lo que el estudio llama “indigestión informativa”, un concepto muy interesante relacionado con la “limitación de contenidos” en plena era de la comunicación. Y si no se respeta esta solución planteada, sencilla por cierto, los medios de comunicación seguirán fomentando el racismo y descontextualizando la verdadera razón de los movimientos migratorios.

Parece que estamos en un momento lingüístico en el que llamar a las cosas por su nombre tiene un riesgo. ¿Cómo podríamos definir a una estructura que presenta cuatro patas y un tablero de madera colocado sobre ellas? Podríamos llamarlo mesa, pero a lo mejor ofendemos a las mesas.

Quién sabe, a lo mejor un día, sin tener que realizar un estudio, un manual financiado por Europa o una tesis doctoral, nos da por llamarlos “personas”.

 

Referencia bibliográfica del estudio: Barrutia-Navarrete, M. (2017). La cobertura de la inmigración ilegal como crítica a la realidad mediática: la especialización periodística como respuesta. En Serrano Martín, C. (Cord), Periodismo narrativo y nuevos escenarios de comunicación (págs. 38-69). Sevilla: Editorial Egregius.

La imagen de portada y la del cuerpo de la noticia son de KStudio/Freepik

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